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Also, several benefits were reported in K-12 schools in which STEM-PBL was adopted (Han et al., 2014; Tsigarides, Wingfield, & Kulendran, 2017) .These benefits include increased self-confidence, increased self-efficacy, being effective in professional learning, facilitating the process of career, promoting lifelong learning, increased critical thinking, and particularly increased students’ positive attitude that enhances their academic achievement (Kumari & Nandal, 2016; Wallace & Webb, 2016; Han et al., 2014) .1) Diverse Teaching Methods: Regarding the first research trend, different teaching strategies for STEM education such as teacher-centered learning (TCL), game-based teaching or learning (GBL, Hoge, 2013 ), problem-based learning, and project-based learning (PBL) have been studied.Of these teaching strategies, project-based learning (PBL) has been recommended for STEM by the reason of being authentic, cooperative, feasible, and motivational (Wallace & Webb, 2016; Shahin & Top, 2015) .PBL, similar to problem-based learning, is sometimes considered as a learner-centred approach and is defined as an instructional method that focuses on higher-order learning in which students endeavor to resolve ill-structured or ill-defined projects by combining knowledge and authentic experiences in a real-world setting (Capraro & Corlu, 2013; Capraro & Jones, 2013; Tawfik & Trueman, 2015) . (2013) argued that PBL is a model for class activity in which teachers are just facilitators and practices are rooted in a real-world context and designed in the frame of projects for long-term learning.The application of PBL for STEM programs reveals that PBL’s common features such as higher level of instructional feedback, inquiring strategies, integrated subject areas, students’ discussions, and peer and self-assessment lead students to acquire the higher level of learning and positive attitude toward subjects (Hall & Miro, 2016) .In their study, Karaman and Celik (2008 cited in Tseng, Chang, Lou, & Chen, 2013 ), demonstrated that those students participated in PBL classes performed better in skill development, knowledge retention and general abilities comparing with those were not in PBL classes.
2) Students’ Attitude toward STEM-PBL: Students’ attitude toward STEM-PBL refers to the way students think and feel about the STEM and the way they involved themselves in the process of learning through PBL.
One of the important findings of their study was that PBL was more effective in changing students’ attitude toward engineering rather than mathematics.