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The resulting cells are called gametes, and contain only half the genetic material of the parent cells.These gametes are the cells that are prepared for the sexual reproduction of the organism.Life has evolved from simple stages to more complex ones, and so have the reproduction mechanisms.
In sexual reproduction, the genetic material of the offspring comes from two different individuals.
Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.
The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.
the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes (see evolution of anisogamy).
The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans.
XY sex determination is used by most mammals, The X0 sex-determination is found in most arachnids, insects such as silverfish (Apterygota), dragonflies (Paleoptera) and grasshoppers (Exopterygota), and some nematodes, crustaceans, and gastropods.